Behavioral Ecology of Hunter-Gatherers
M W 11:00-12:15 HSSB 1173; Enroll #: 52043
Office: 2059 HSSB
Office hours: M 1:00-3:00pm, or by appt
TA: Chris von Rueden, firstname.lastname@example.org,
Office: 2060 HSSB; Office hrs: W 9-11am, or by appt
REQUIRED COURSE MATERIALS:
1) Reader of articles (available at Alternative Copy Shop)
2) Kelly, Robert. (1995) The Foraging Spectrum: Diversity in Hunter-Gatherer Lifeways. (Available at UCEN, $26)
ANTH 5, 7 or equivalent course in biological anthropology; quantitative experience (e.g. statistics course, calculus)
1) Mid-Term Exam, consists of short answers, essay.
(100 pts) Ė NOV 15, 2010 IN-CLASS!!!
2) Final Exam (100 pts), consists of short answers, problems, multiple choice - Friday, DEC 10, 2010 12-3pm
3) Several (3 to 5) homework problems. (60 pts)
4) Class participation is strongly encouraged and will be rewarded at the end of the quarter in the event that your grade is borderline.
6) The readings and lectures complement one another, but do not duplicate each other. You must attend the lectures and do the readings to do well in the class. I will always indicate at the end of each class what should be read for the next class in case we deviate from the schedule.
7) Attendence is critical. Any class missed without prior notification will be an unexcused absence. One unexcused absence is allowed. Two unexcused absences may result in a grade reduction (A to A-, A- to B+, etc.) Attendance is essential to gain a full understanding of the course content. Your education is your responsibility. In order to get the most out of this class: attend lectures, do the reading, and thoughtfully complete the exams and exercises. If you are going to be absent, you are responsible for finding out what you missed from other classmates. Saying you were not in class and therefore didnít know about an assignment or exam will not be accepted as an excuse. No make-ups are allowed if notification occurs AFTER the exam or assignment was turned in. Without notification all absences are counted as unexcused.
8) Arrive to class ON TIME. Arriving on time to class is also critical. Students should arrive on time to class. Arriving late is a disruption to other students and to the professor. Two latenesses count as an absence from class.
9) You are encouraged to be self-reliant and to take good notes. This will help you study for the exams.
10) The class
schedule is flexible and WILL change. Do not panic. Be aware that the dates
given below are only tentative.
11) If you ever have questions I encourage you to visit me during office hours, or we can set up an appointment. Iím eager to help students in need but you must take the initiative to meet with me. Also, I donít answer big questions by email.
Class format: lecture-based with Powerpoint presentations; discussion encouraged
Up until about 10,000 years ago, all humans and hominid pre-cursors lived as full-time hunter-gatherers. Understanding aspects of past and present adaptations requires a detailed understanding of forager lifeways. This class focuses on behavioral patterns of humans that lived as hunter-gatherers during this past century. Many of these groups continue to forage as a primary means of food acquisition, and can give us the best insight into fundamental trade-offs and decision-making processes of human hunter-gatherers. This course is designed to give students a thorough introduction to the diversity of behaviors found among living hunter-gatherers in Africa, South America, Southeast Asia, and Australia, from the perspective of behavioral ecology. Behavioral ecology applies principles of natural selection to explain rather than just describe behavioral variation. Students will gain ethnographic insight from numerous groups, thorough background into several core debates that continue to influence how we view ourselves (e.g. ďStone-agers in the fast lane?Ē), and the context of foragers in anthropology, and in society at large. We will cover aspects of diet and subsistence, mating, demography, social behavior, mobility and settlement patterns, gender, health, indigenous rights and conservation. This course should be of great interest to cultural and biological anthropologists, archaeologists, economists, philosophers and evolutionary psychologists.
(TENTATIVE) SCHEDULE OF CLASSES:
Week 1: Sept
27 and 29
1. Introduction - Why study hunter-gatherers? What is behavioral ecology?
2. History, Issues, Perspectives, Questions
Reading: Ember 1978; Marlowe 2005a
GRADS: (1) Lee 1992. Art, science or politics? the crisis in hunter-gatherer studies.
Week 2: Oct 4
3. Diet, food choice patterns, and zen road to affluence
GRADS: (1) Hill and Kintigh 2009, Can Anthropologists Distinguish Good and Poor Hunters?; (2) Mithen 1988, Modeling hunter-gatherer decision-making complementing optimal foraging theory
Week 3: Oct 11
4. Mobility patterns and group size
5. Food sharing, territoriality,
Week 4: Oct 18
and 20, 25
6. Sexual division of labor, why do men hunt?
Reading: Gurven and Hill 2009; Kelly Ch. 7 (261-278)
GRADS: (1) Panter-Brick, C. 2002. Sexual division of labor: energetic and evolutionary scenarios. AJHB.
Week 5: Oct 27
7. MID-TERM EXAM in class - on all material above
Week 6: Nov 1 and 3
8. Life history,
fertility and lifespan
Reading: Kaplan et al. 2000; Hrdy 2005
GRAD: (1) Ivey 2000. Cooperative reproduction in Ituri forest HGs;
9. Egalitarianism and fairness
Reading: Cashdan 1980; Boehm 1993; Kelly Ch. 8
GRAD: (1) Woodburn 1982. Egalitarian societies.
Week 7: Nov 8
10 and 11. Health and depression
Reading: Eaton et al. 1988; Froment 2001; Eaton et al. 1994; Balter 2005 (optional)
Week 8: Nov 15 and 17
12. Mating, divorce, and parenting
Reading: Blurton Jones and Marlowe 2001; Marlowe 2005b
13. Historical revisionism: IN-CLASS DEBATE
Reading: Headland 1994; Solway and Lee 1993
GRAD: (1) Headland & Bailey 1991. Have HGs ever lived in tropical forests without agriculture? (2) Stearman 1991. Yuqui in the forest
13. African foragers:
Hadza (Hadza film)
Reading: Hawkes et al. 1991; Marlowe 1999
Week 9: Nov 22
14. African foragers: Pygmies (film)
Reading: Hewlett 1996; Ichikawa 1983
15.. South America: Ache (film)
Reading: Hill 1994; Hill and Hurtado 1996 Ch. 7
GRAD: Hill and Hurtado 1996. Ache Life History (you should own this book and read it at some point)
Week 10: Nov
29 and Dec 1
17. Australian foragers. The Central Desert (Pitjanjara film)
Reading: Tonkinson 1991: Intro and chapter 2.
GRAD: Scelza & Bird 2008. Group structure and female cooperative networks in Australia's Western Desert
18. S.E. Asian foragers.
Reading: Estioko Griffin 1986, Goodman et al. 1985, Brosius 1997 (optional)
19. Synthesis and wrap-up
FINAL EXAM Friday DEC 10, 12-3pm