Organized warfare attested in both written records and physically by the massive defense walls built around important cities like Ur, where a large portion of the population lived for protection. You can read more about Ur-Nammu in the Anthology section of this week’s Assignment in the Study Guide.
The houses described by Woolley in the Anthology reading date to the Isin-Larsa period (c. 2000 BC), when those two cities struggled to unite the Mesopotamian city states under one king, a feat realized only briefly by Hammurabi of Babylon, who set up a victory stela in the sacred precinct at Ur. This prosperous neighborhood of the city included large mansions, smaller houses, a school for learning cuneiform writing (no. I Store Street), numerous chapels dedicated to various Sumerian deities, and a series of fast food shops in nos. XII, X, and VIII Paternoster Row (Woolley named the streets after his alma mater, Oxford). You can explore it further here.
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