This exercise is designed to introduce you to the fascinating world of paleoanthropology and the search for our earliest human ancestors. Although much of paleoanthropology is within the special province of physical anthropologists and paleontologists, there is much for the archaeologist to do as well. Understanding human evolution means more than just knowing the course of human biological evolution -- it also involves reconstructing human behavioral evolution as well. The explosive growth of human populations throughout the world in the past 12,000 years has been the result of our ability to make technological and behavioral adjustments to changing social and environmental conditions. By seeking to understand the very beginnings of our capacity for behavioral flexibility, we will hopefully better appreciate what an amazing group of species we hominids are.