Plant Database

Please enjoy educating your taste buds,
but please do not take any unnecessary risks if you are unsure about a plant.

 

Welcome to our ever-growing database for edible, medicinal and useful plants found in Isla Vista! Enjoy educating your taste buds, but please do not take any unnecessary risks if you are unsure about a plant. When collecting edible plants be sure to use your own common sense and always check the listed information to ensure correct location and identification of edible plants. These plants are fed with reclaimed water, so be sure to wash what you collect before consumption! 

Table of Contents:

  1. Bamboo
  2. Bunya Bunya Pine
  3. Firethorn
  4. Iceplant
  5. Lavender
  6. Lemonadeberry
  7. Mallow
  8. Nastertium
  9. Natal Plum
  10. Pickleweed
  11. Rosemary
  12. Sage
  13. Sourgrass
  14. Strawberry Guava
  15. Strawberry Tree

Bamboo

Common Names: Bamboo ~ Latin name:  Bambusoideae 

Description:  Bamboo is a flowering plant that is a member of the subfamily Bambusoideae, which is in the larger grass family Poaceae.  It is found in a variety of both hot and cold climates.  Bamboo forms green stalks that extend upwards, almost vertically, from the ground.  The bamboo stalks contain leaves, which are also green.   

Location on campus:  There is a long hedge of bamboo along the South side wall of the Thunderdome. There are several very tall bamboo ‘trees’ in a courtyard within the theater and dance buildings.In front of Santa Catalina. In the field to the school side of FT.
 
Part of Plant that is useful/edible: The stalk of the Bamboo plant can be eaten, although the stalks should be peeled and cooked before they are consumed.

Best time of year: Bamboo is evergreen, so it can be harvested any time of the year.

How to collect: To collect bamboo stalk, simply cut a piece off the larger piece of stalk, or remove the stalk from the ground.

Flavor: Bamboo has a very mild flavor, and is often used in cooking for its texture. In different parts of Asia, bamboo is used as a food source, as building material, and as a multifaceted raw material.

Recipes: ​Bamboo shoot stir fry

Medicine: Bamboo shavings are used in Chinese medicine to combat cold and flu-like symptoms.3 Bamboo sap and leaves are used in Chinese medicine to fight fevers.4

WARNINGS: Raw shoots have a chemical called cyanogenic glycosides that is toxic to humans if not destroyed by thorough cooking.5

Fun Facts:  Bamboo is one of the fastest growing plants in the world, due to its rhizome dependent system. Some species of bamboo can grow to be 1300’ tall. Bamboo flowers are rarely seen because most species flower every 20 to 120 years.6 Bamboo flowers gregariously, which means that all plants with the same parent plant will spontaneously begin to flower at the same time, regardless of geographic location, and will continue to flower for several years until all of the flowering plants die to make room for the next generation that was just seeded.7

Bunya Bunya Pine

Common Name: Bunya Bunya Pine ~ Latin name: Araucaria bidwillii

Description: The tree exhibits a dark brown, thick trunk and its leaves are a glossy green color, stiff, and pointy. This tree can grow up to a 150 feet tall and culminates in a domed peak. Horizontal branches are arranged in as regular pattern. The seed cones can be the size of bowling balls. Cones resemble coconuts from afar on the tree. It is native to south-east Queensland, Australia.1 2

Location on campus: Along the main bike path in front of HSSB.

Part of Plant that is useful/edible: Nuts inside of the pine cone.

Best time of year: December to March.3 

How to collect: The seed cones must be collected and opened within seven days of falling from the tree. Peel off the outside fibers covering the nut before eating.  

Uses:

Edible: Trees on campus may not have cones/may not taste good due to improper climate

Flavor: The taste is sweet and starchy like a chestnut. 4

Recipes: Nuts can be eaten raw, Bunya nut chocolate cake Pesto

Medicine:

What it does: Acts as an antimicrobial preventing food poisoning and food from spoiling.5

WARNINGS: When collecting the cones watch for ones that are falling; if hit it they can prove fatal.The leaves/branches are sharp and rather painful to pick up or step on

Fun Facts: Aborigines in the tree’s native habitat in Australia used to make peace between tribes for the harvesting of the seeds without disputes.6

Firethorn

Common Names: Firethorn ~ Latin name: Pyracanth

Description: Firethorn is a shrub that belongs to the family Rosaceae. It can group up to 10-15ft  It is native to the area the covers Southwest Europe to Southeast Asia. When mature, the fruits are small, spherical, and red. The flowers on the Firethorn bloom from late spring to early summer.1 2

Location on campus: Firethorn is located just inside the Western entrance to South Hall, and on the South side of Kerr Hall.

Part of Plant that is useful/edible: Berries.

Best time of year: The fruit on the Firethorn matures in late autumn.

How to collect: To collect Firethorn, simply pick the berries off of the shrub.

Uses:

Edible: The berries are NOT edible without some processing,

Flavor: Apple-like

RecipesFirethorn JellyFirethorn Sauce 

WARNINGS: The fruit on the Firethorn is only edible after it has been crushed and washed under running water. If eaten in large quantities, Firethorn fruit can cause stomach pain due to the fact that it is mildly poisonous. No other part of the Firethorn plant than the processed fruit should be eaten.3

Fun Facts: In Britain, Firethorn is an important source of nectar for bees during times when other plants are not blooming.4

 

Ice Plant

Common Names: Ice Plant  ~ Latin name: Carpobrotus edulis

Description: Iceplant is a robust perennial succulent shrub that is native to coastal South Africa. The plant is abundant and considered an invasive species on California’s mediterranean coast in which it thrives. The plant grows in a thick and dense mat-like way. Its thick succulent stems grow horizontally and curve upwards. Flowers generally appear in late winter to spring and can be yellow, pink, and  purple. The ice plant’s fruit appears once the flower dies back and is edible. The fruit is yellow and fleshy when ripe and resembles a fig or spinning top.

Location on campus: Campus point bluffs

Best time of year: Early spring in California regions

How to collect: Simply pick the fleshy fruit (resembles a spinning top), it will be yellow in color when ripe and can be eaten fresh. The outer layer is astringent and is ideally removed before eating the more jelly-like interior, where the seeds are located.

Uses:

Edible:

Flavor: Salty and sour, mildly sweet when riper

Recipes: Fruit can be eaten fresh, Ice plant jam AKA Sour Fig Jam 1

WARNINGS: Ice plant grows along bluffs and steep coastal cliffs. DO NOT harvest ice plant close to cliffs.

Fun Facts: Ice plant was introduced in California during the early 1900s for coastal erosion mitigation; the plant still outcompetes many native coastal plants to this day.2 Ice plant can inhibit the natural movement processes of sand dune environments.3 In South Africa the ice plant’s fruit is sometimes referred to as a sour fig.4

Lavender

Common Names: Lavender  ~ Latin name: Lavandula

Description: Purple flower bush with small leaves and circular shape. Small circular shaped/pruned plant with individual stems that have both small purple flowers and small green leaves.

Location on campus: Right side of Student Resource Building in the direction of pardall tunnel but farther behind the building.

Part of Plant that is useful/edible: Purple flowers

Best time of year:

How to collect: Collect the flowers by the stem, if for consumption remove the small purple flowers from the stem after harvesting.  

Uses:  Used as flavor, garnish, baking ingredient, perfume, house/drawer/clothing fragrance,  etcetera.

Edible:

Flavor: Floral

RecipesLavender-Honey ice creamVanilla-lavender cake,  Lavendar smoothie                                                                                                                                                                                 

WARNINGS: Consumption of lavender oil is toxic. Some individuals may be allergic to lavender. Can cause skin irritation in some individuals.

Fun Facts: Thought to help cure insomnia when used in essential oil form for smelling purposes. Lavender is also used for other aroma therapeutic purposes. Lavender oil is also thought to increase hair growth when applied to the scalp. You can collect lavender and dry it for around two weeks for storage, use, or scent. Historically, lavender was used for bathing and scents.1 It is from the mint family.2

Lemonade berry

Common Names: Lemonade Berry ~ Latin name: Rhus integrifolia   lemonade berries, ripe

Description: Small red/purple clusters of berries on large green-leaved bushes.Large green bushes with clusters of small purple/red berries and small pink/red flowers that have five petals.

Location on campus: Near/around the lagoon

Part of Plant that is useful/edible: Berries

Best time of year: Spring

How to collect: Pick berries from cluster by hand and clean before consumption. Pick berries when dark red/orange.1

Uses: Edible. Both the berries and leaves can be used for thirst avoidance. Berries can be soaked in water to create a drink. The leaves and branches can be used to dye cloth. 2 3

Edible: Berries and leaves

Flavor: The berries have a sour and bitter taste. Similar to the taste of Warheads.

RecipesLemonadeberry juice, dried Lemonadeberries, Lemonadeberry syrup, Lemonadeberry jelly, Lemonadeberry jell candy                                                                                                        Sumac Lemonade 4

Medicine:

What it does: Relieves coughs and fevers. Tea from the leaves used to treat coughs. Ground seeds drink used to treat fever5

WARNINGS: The bark produces sap that can be irritating to some individuals’ skin, similar to poison oak.6 7

Fun Facts: The Chumash used to make a drink from the berries, hence the name. Leomonade berries taste like Warheads.

Other comments and concerns: The berries are sticky, be aware when picking and handling.8

Mallow

Common Names: Mallow, Cheeseweed ~ Latin name: Malvaceaelow lying mallow plant mallow leaf mallow seeds pale purple mallow flower

Description: There are many different kinds of mallow growing wild in California, all considered weeds. Annual plants, they come up with the first rains of the season and begin to dig in a thick, woody taproot, allowing them to be seen year round1. The fruits, although green and often wrinkled, look akin to small wheels of cheese or flat pumpkins because of their 10-12 wedge shaped sections; each section contains a seed. Leaves are slightly fuzzy and have 5 to 7 lobes, veins radiating from a central point, wavy shallow-toothed edges, and a crinkled appearance, as though someone balled up a piece of paper; they can be very small to broader than a human hand. Grows in a spreading manner, often low to the ground, although some species can exceed 5 feet in height. Flowers are very small; white, purple or pink in color; have 5 notched petals that may appear as 10 petals; grow where the leaves meet the stems2,3,4.

Look Alikes: No poisonous look alikes5! Ground Ivy has similar leaves but flowers are very different. It is edible as well6.

WARNINGS: None

Best time of year: Begin growing after first rain, but can be seen year round. Flower in spring.

Location: Any open space, disturbed earth, open field, dirt patches, agricultural areas.

Useful parts: All parts of plant are edible: Leaves, flowers, stems and fruits/seeds7

Uses: Food, Medicine

Flavor: Soft and hairy at first touch, but a little slimy texture when chewed.

Recipes: Used as salad greens and potherbs8Marshmallow/whipped cream recipe9A bunch of quick recipe ideas10Mallow Fritters11Mallow Soup12

Medicine: The mucilaginous property (sliminess) of the plant makes them soothing for various types of inflammation. Can be used topically like aloe vera and cactus by putting on sunburns and inflamed skin13.Can also eat them as a remedy for coughs and colds14.

Chemistry: calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, selenium, vitamin A, vitamin C15

Fun Facts: Other plants in the same family are cotton, hibiscus and okra16. The original ingredient of marshmallow, Althaea officinalis, is in the same family16! Can accumulate nitrates at levels toxic to cattle17. Used as a survival food during war or crop failure18. Grows on 6 of the 7 continents19.

Nasturtium

Common Names: Nasturtium, Indian Cres ~ Latin name: Tropaeolaceae Majus

Description:

Low ground cover or climbing vine plant; many branches from vines. Orange or red or yellow flowers; 5 petals. Pale to deep green, rounded, undulating cloud shaped leaves; 8 prominent veins per leaf coming out from a center point on the leaf towards edges.

Location: Often in overgrown areas. Located on campus near Girvetz. Seen in Isla Vista Neighborhood.

Useful Parts: Leaves and Flowers (especially of young plants).

Best time of year: Can bloom all year long. Flowers fade during extremely hot summers or cold winters.

How to collect: Gently pick or cut flowers and leaves from the main stems of the vine.

Uses:

Edible

Flavor: Pungent, peppery, sharp “plant” flavor of leaves and flowers.

Recipes: Can be eaten straight off the plant or added to salad, Nasturtium Pesto, Juice: cough remedy. Dried: powdered ripe buds can be used as a mild laxative. Flowers can be eaten for vitamin C, to help overcome and prevent the cold and flu. Compress/Topically: can be used on small cuts to prevent bacterial infections. Infusion: used for internal infections

Medicine:

What it does: Expectorant: helps clear mucus from lungs (cough remedy). Diuretic: increases production of urine. Aperient: purgative or laxative. Disinfectant.

Chemical Compounds: isobutyl isothiocyanate, glycotropeoline, spilanthol, oxalic acid, vitamin C

WARNINGS: Nasturtium can cause skin irritation. Pregnant or breastfeeding women should not use this herb. People with kidney, stomach, or intestine problems should not use this herb. The medical community doesn’t recognize the benefits of this plant. Always consult a medicine practitioner before using herbs as medicine.

Fun Facts: The seeds of the Nasturtium plant were used as a substitute for pepper during World War II. Nasturtium means “nose twister” in Latin.  This name refers to people’s reactions when they taste it.

Natal Plum

Common Names: Natal Plum ~ Latin name: Carissa macrocarpa

Description: The Natal Plum is a shrub that is a member of the family Apocynaceae.  It is native to South Africa. When mature, the Natal Plum is oval shaped, and red in color.  If the fruit is green, it means that it is not mature.  The Natal Plum plant has white flowers.

Location on campus: The Natal Plum is located on the East side of the Thunder Dome, and bordering the bike racks by De La Guerra Dining Commons.

Best time of year: In coastal areas with moderate climates, the shrub that carries the Natal Plum produces fruit year round. 1

How to collect: To collect the Natal Plum, one should simply pull the fruit directly off the shrub.

Uses:

Edible: The fruit is the only edible thing on the shrub that carries the Natal Plum.

Flavor: The Natal Plum is sweet, but it also has a slight sour taste.

Recipes: Natal Plum jelly and pie. Can also be incorporated into fruit smoothies and blended drinks. Natal Plum JamNatal Plum Jelly/Jam

What it does:  The Natal Plum is a great source of Vitamin C.  Vitamin C increases immunity, improves gum health, and provides many more general health benefits. To get the benefits of the Natal Plum, eat the fruit.

Chemistry: Contains sufficient pectin and acid, facilitating the making of firm gels in jelly

WARNINGS: Make sure only to eat the fruit on the shrub; all other parts of the plant are poisonous except the fruit, including the stems and leaves. There are thorns on the shrub that carries the Natal Plum, so exercise caution when collecting the fruit. 2

Fun Facts: The Natal Plum contains latex, which is used to make rubber. The Greek name for the Natal Plum translates to “keep away from the dog.”

Other comments and concerns: Interesting article from a natal plum enthusisiest 

Pickleweed

Common Names: Pickleweed, Sea asparagus, American glasswort ~ Latin name: Salicornia pacifica

Description: Pickleweed is a low lying perennial that is located along both the west and east coasts of North America and parts of the Gulf of Mexico.1 It thrives in salty environments with little wave action, which includes shorelines, salt marshes, and tidal flats. Its green stems grow up to 1 meter and have a jointed and notably pickle-esque appearance. Flowering stems produce purple upright flowers.2 3

Location on campus: Around Campus Lagoon

Best time of year: Can be picked year-round. More green during summer with some red hues in fall.

How to collect: Simply pick the green stems off of the plant.

Uses:

Edible:4

Flavor: Salty

Recipes:  

WARNINGS:

Fun Facts: The name glasswort comes from the plant’s use as soda ash for glass making in the 18th century.5

Other comments and concerns: This plant is located at restoration sites for salt-marshes and wetlands, so be considerate of the fragile and managed environment when collecting.  

Rosemary

Common Names: Rosemary ~ Latin name: Rosemarinus officinalis

Description: Short bush with fragrant branch extensions and small flowers. Low-the-the-ground bushes with straight branches covered with small light purple flowers and fragrant branch extensions.

Location on campus:

Part of Plant that is useful/edible: Branch extensions, small purple flowers.

Best time of year:

How to collect: Pick the rosemary by the branch and remove the pieces from the branch to add as seasoning/topping/ flavoring.

Uses: Ingredient, herbal topping, topical, flavor, scent, fragrance.

Edible:

Flavor: Herbal/floral 

RecipesRosemary potatoes

Medicine: Essential oil/ topical

WARNINGS

Fun Facts: Rosemary essential oil is beneficial for hair growth. 

Sage

Common Names: Sage (common sage/garden sage)  ~ Latin name: Salvia officinalis

Description: Sage is native to the Mediterranean region and is a part of the mint family (Lamiaceae). It has purple flowers (other colors may include pink, white, and red) and ovular downy leaves which have a pungent smell and vary in color from green-white to green-gray. The plant generally grows to be 2-3ft high. 1

Location on campus: Near UCSB greenhouse

Best time of year: Sage is a perennial plant and can be collected year-round.

How to collect: Simply pick the leaves off of the plantUses: Aroma therapeutic, spiritual cleansing, scent

Edible:

RecipesEdible uses 2 Tea (soak the leaves in hot water)flavoring for meat, especially poultry recipes 

Flavor: herbal, earthyMedicine:  

What it does: May alleviate indigestion, inflammation. May have mild antiseptic and antibacterial qualities3 4

Chemistry: Thujone is present in some species and can cause kidney damage, seizures, and other ailments if taken in very large doses.

WARNINGS: Can be toxic in very large doses

Fun Facts: Sage was believed to improve memory and increase mental capacity in medieval Europe.5 Burning dried sage is practiced and believed by some to promote protection in an area (such as a house or shelter)

Sour Grass

Common Names: Sour Grass ~ Latin name: Oxalis stricta

Description: This common perennial has yellow flowers with five parts and can grow up to 50-100cm in height. Leaves are alternate and form three heart shaped leaflets, much like a three leafed clover.1

Location on campus:

Best time of year: Blooms usually start in spring continue through fall.2

How to collect: pick leaves or stems to chew on.

Uses:

Edible:

Flavor: Sour, but in a pleasant way

Recipes: Sour Apple Spritzer

Medicine:  

What it does:  

Chemistry: Oxalic acid: gives the plant its sour taste.3

WARNINGS: Oxalic acid is toxic in large doses

Fun Facts: A yellow-orange dye can be made of the plant by boiling it.4

Strawberry Guava 

ripe, purple strawberry guavas and unripe, green strawberry guavas

strawberry tree in front of Harold Frank Hall

Common Names: Strawberry Guava  ~ Latin name: Psidium cattleyanum 

Description: The Strawberry Guava is a tree native to Brazil that belongs to the family Myrtaceae. The fruit of the Strawberry Guava is spherical, small (about 4 cm long), and red/purple in color when ripe. It has glossy, green, oval leaves and white flowers with five petals.1

Location on campus: West side of South Hall, South/East side of Harold Frank Hall, and Robertson Gymnasium. 

Best time of year: The Strawberry Guava produces fruit year round. Trees on campus produce ripe fruit at different times depending on their location.

How to collect: To collect the Strawberry Guava, simply pick the fruit off the tree.

Uses:

Edible: The fruit only lasts 1-2 days at room temperature. 

Flavor: The Strawberry Guava is sweet, but also has a slight tang. The fruit tastes like its name, with flavors of strawberry and guava. 

RecipesJamJuiceJello

Medicine:  

What it does: The fruit is high in antioxidants and has anti-inflammatory effects.2 The Strawberry Guava helps with digestion because it contains a large amount of fiber.3 It helps prevent scurvy because it contains Vitamin C.4

WARNINGS: Only eat the fruit of the Strawberry Guava, as it is the only part of the plant that is edible.

Fun Facts: The Strawberry Guava is also known as cherry guava, purple guava, and cattley guava.5 Strawberry Guava is an invasive species on the Hawaiian Islands. It has invaded hundreds of thousands of acres on the islands and threatens to spread even more. Non-native pigs and birds facilitate its spread when they eat the fruit.6

 

Strawberry Tree

Common Names: Strawberry Tree ~ Latin name: Arbutus unedo  

Description: The Strawberry Tree is a relatively short tree, 15 to 30 ft high. When mature, the fruit of the Strawberry Tree is spherical, small, red in color, and has a rough and bumpy outer layer. The texture is strange on the tongue. White bell shaped flowers grow in small clusters. The bark is a reddish-brown color that peels in the sun. The leaves are green, glossy and serrated. It is an evergreen and often used ornamentally.

Location on campus: There are Strawberry Trees located on the South side of Broida Hall, on the South side of the Humanities and Social Sciences Building, in the Girvetz courtyard, along El Colegio heading West from campus towards Santa Ynez housing, as well as near Webb Hall. They are all over campus.

Edible: The fruit is the only part of the Strawberry Tree that is edible.

Best time of year: The fruit on the Strawberry Tree is best to eat in Autumn, when the fruit matures.

How to collect: To collect the fruit from the Strawberry Tree, one should simply pick the fruit off the tree.

Uses:

Edible

Flavor:  The Strawberry Tree fruit has a sweet taste, and has flavors that have hints of strawberry and peach.

RecipesJam

Medicine:

What it does:  May lower blood pressure and fight against colds.

Chemistry:  The medicinal properties of the Strawberry Tree comes from the fact that it contains tannins and Vitamin C.

Recipes:  To make the herbal tea, soak the Strawberry Tree leaves in a cup of hot water.  Other things like lemon zest can be added to improve the taste.

WARNINGS: Make sure to only eat the fruit on the tree. Underripe fruit can cause nausea. Overripe fruit can cause intoxication

Fun Facts: The tree is related to Manzanitas (aka refrigerator trees). The bark peels because it gets sunburnt! The Strawberry Tree is part of the Coat of Arms of Madrid. The Coat of Arms depicts a bear eating from a Strawberry Tree. The Strawberry Tree was mentioned by Ovid, a Roman poet from the first century BCE, in his work titled Metamorphoses. In Ireland the ballad “My love’s an Arbutus” correlates the strawberry tree and true love qualities

References: 
 

Bamboo

1. https://www.britannica.com/plant/bamboo

2. https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/2388036.pdf

3. http://www.itmonline.org/arts/bamboo.htm

4.  https://www.foodstandards.gov.au/publications/documents/28_Cyanogenic_glycosides.pdf

5.  http://phenomena.nationalgeographic.com/2015/05/15/bamboo-mathematicians/

6.  http://koorihistory.com/bunya/

7.  https://floridata.com/Plants/Araucariaceae/Araucaria+bidwillii/133

Bunya Bunya Pine

1.    http://anpsa.org.au/a-bid.html

2.       https://research-repository.griffith.edu.au/bitstream/handle/10072/46944/78134_1.pdf

3.       https://research-repository.griffith.edu.au/bitstream/handle/10072/46944/78134_1.pdf

4.       https://research-repository.griffith.edu.au/bitstream/handle/10072/46944/78134_1.pdf

5.      https://research-repository.griffith.edu.au/bitstream/handle/10072/46944/78134_1.pdf

6.       

Firethorn

1. http://www.clemson.edu/extension/hgic/plants/landscape/shrubs/hgic1072.html

2. https://www.britannica.com/plant/firethorn

3. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/plantox/detail.cfm?id=1349

4. http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/22433553

Iceplant

1.       https://taste.co.za/recipes/sour-fig-jam-with-french-toasted-flapjacks-and-saint-andre-brie/

2. https://www.wildlife.ca.gov/Conservation/Plants/Dont-Plant-Me/Iceplant

2.   http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1010

3.   https://taste.co.za/recipes/sour-fig-jam-with-french-toasted-flapjacks-and-saint-andre-brie/

Lavender

1.   http://www.countryliving.com/gardening/g2525/lavender-facts/

2.   http://www.softschools.com/facts/plants/lavender_facts/1073/

Lemonade Berry

1.   http://mother-natures-backyard.blogspot.com/2015/05/california-gourmet-cooking-with.html

2http://www.ethnoherbalist.com/southern-california-native-plants-medicinal/lemonade-berry/

3.   http://mother-natures-backyard.blogspot.com/2014/12/plant-of-month-december-lemonadeberry.html

4.   http://mother-natures-backyard.blogspot.com/2014/12/plant-of-month-december-lemonadeberry.html

5. http://mother-natures-backyard.blogspot.com/2014/12/plant-of-month-december-lemonadeberry.html

6. http://mother-natures-backyard.blogspot.com/2014/12/plant-of-month-december-lemonadeberry.html

7. http://www.ethnoherbalist.com/southern-california-native-plants-medicinal/lemonade-berry/

8. http://mother-natures-backyard.blogspot.com/2015/05/california-gourmet-cooking-with.html

Mallow

1http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/PESTNOTES/pn74127.html

2. http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/PESTNOTES/pn74127.html

3. http://www.pennilessparenting.com/2011/11/foraging-mallow.html

4. http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/WEEDS/little_mallow.html

5. http://www.pennilessparenting.com/2011/11/foraging-mallow.html

6. http://www.pennilessparenting.com/2011/11/foraging-mallow.html

7. https://dengarden.com/gardening/malva

8. https://www.wildflowers-and-weeds.com/Plant_Families/Malvaceae.htm

9. https://www.wildflowers-and-weeds.com/Plant_Families/Malvaceae.htm

10. http://www.pennilessparenting.com/2011/11/foraging-mallow.html

11. https://sites.google.com/site/thislittlegreenbookrecipes/common-mallow-fritters-fritella-di-malva

12. https://www.henriettes-herb.com/faqs/medi-2-21-mallow.html

13. https://www.wildflowers-and-weeds.com/Plant_Families/Malvaceae.htm

14. https://dengarden.com/gardening/malva

15. https://dengarden.com/gardening/malva

16. http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/PESTNOTES/pn74127.html

17. http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/WEEDS/little_mallow.html

18. https://dengarden.com/gardening/malva

19. http://www.pennilessparenting.com/2011/11/foraging-mallow.html

Natal Plum

1.   http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fp108

2.   https://floridata.com/Plants/Apocynaceae/Carissa%20macrocarpa/875

Pickleweed

1. http://www.centralcoastbiodiversity.org/sea-asparagus-bull-salicornia-pacifica.html

2. http://www.centralcoastbiodiversity.org/sea-asparagus-bull-salicornia-pacifica.html

3.  https://www.sanelijo.org/plant-guide/pickleweed

4. http://www.centralcoastbiodiversity.org/sea-asparagus-bull-salicornia-pacifica.html

5. http://www.centralcoastbiodiversity.org/sea-asparagus-bull-salicornia-pacifica.html

Sage

1. https://www.britannica.com/plant/sage-plant

2. https://www.britannica.com/plant/sage-plant

3. http://cms.herbalgram.org/herbalgram/issue89/herbpro.html?ts=1509316481&signature=2059b1dc72253804fc8314daed3c2547

4. https://ac.els-cdn.com/S2225411017300056/1-s2.0-S2225411017300056-main.pdf?_tid=eb5fffcc-bcfb-11e7-b329-      00000aacb362&acdnat=1509317763_5e7fde6568651a8c10eae9850c6a53e1

5.  https://www.britannica.com/plant/sage-plant

Sour Grass

1.   http://2bnthewild.com/plants/H279.htm

2.   http://2bnthewild.com/plants/H279.htm

3. http://2bnthewild.com/plants/H279.htm

4. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/05/garden/a-new-generation-discovers-grow-it-yourself-dyes.html

Strawberry Guava 

1.http://eol.org/pages/2508592/overview

2.http://www.springer.com/cda/content/document/cda_downloaddocument/9783319128467-c1.pdf?SGWID=0-0-45-1490051-p177062978

3.https://books.google.com/books?id=eScsDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA35&lpg=PA35&dq=Psidium+cattleyanum+fiber&source=bl&ots=8m061nRMO1&sig=gQDtaHoId0iodqASU902IPZL6BQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj6iPTrjLjZAhUIwmMKHU6yCvQQ6AEIezAH#v=onepage&q=Psidium%20cattleyanum%20fiber&f=false

4.http://eol.org/pages/2508592/overview

5.http://www.springer.com/cda/content/document/cda_downloaddocument/9783319128467-c1.pdf?SGWID=0-0-45-1490051-p177062978

6.http://eol.org/pages/2508592/overview