1. While gender and ethnic discrimination share a number of features in common, these social phenomenon are driven by qualitatively different motives and serve distinctly different social functions.
2. The psychology of gender is incomplete without the inclusion of the psychology of arbitrary-set hierarchy, specifically regarding invariant gender differences with respect to the predisposition to establish and maintain group-based social hierarchy. Likewise, a complete understanding of the psychology of arbitrary-set discrimination is incomplete without an understanding of the "gendered" nature of ethnic and racial discrimination.
3. The very popular "double-jeopardy" hypothesis argues that women of
color suffer from a double handicap and are discriminated against on the
basis of both their gender and their ethnicity. However, this presentation
argues that this popular thesis is fundamentally flawed. In its place,
we substitute the "subordinate-male-target hypothesis" (SMTH). SMTH
argues that while women from both dominant and subordinate arbitrary groups
(e.g., different "races") are discriminated against on the basis of gender,
women from subordinate arbitrary-set groups are generally not directly
discriminated against on the basis of their arbitrary group membership
(e.g., on the basis of "race"). Rather, arbitrary-set discrimination
(e.g., racial discrimination) is primarily directed against males from
subordinate arbitrary-sets. More broadly, social dominance theory
suggests that arbitrary-set discrimination should be regarded as a form
of intergroup conflict and a largely male-on-male project. Such conflict
is primarily executed by males and primarily targeted against "outgroup"
males rather than "outgroup" females.
James H. Sidanius
received his B.A. in Psychology from City College, City University of New
York in 1968 and his Ph.D. in Political-Psychology at the University of
Stockholm, Sweden in 1977 where he also taught for 10 years. Since returning
to the United States in 1983, Professor Sidanius has taught at several
universities in the United States, including Carnegie-Mellon University,
the University of Texas at Austin, New York University and Princeton University.
He joined the Psychology Department at UCLA in 1988 and is currently a
fellow at UCLA's Center for the Study of Society and Politics. Professor
Sidanius is author of some eighty scientific papers in the general field
of political-psychology. This work includes study of the interface between
political ideology and cognitive functioning, the political psychology
of gender, group conflict, institutional discrimination and evolutionary
psychology. He was Vice-President of the International Society of
Political Psychology (1998-1999). Professor Sidanius' latest
book is entitled Social Dominance: An Intergroup Theory of Social Hierarchy
and Oppression and is scheduled for release in July of 1999.
Sidanius, J. & Pratto, F. (In press). Social Dominance: An Intergroup Theory of Social Hierarchy and Oppression. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Sidanius, J. (1993). The Psychology of Group Conflict and the Dynamics of Oppression: A Social Dominance Perspective. In S. Iyengar W. McGuire (Eds.), Explorations in Political Psychology. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 183-219.
Pratto, F., Sidanius, J., Stallworth, L.M., & Malle, B.F. (1994). Social dominance orientation: A personality variable predicting social and political attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 741-763.
van Laar, C., Sidanius, J., Rabinowitz, J. & Sinclair, S. (1999). The Three R's of Academic Achievement: Reading, 'Riting, and Racism. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 25, 139-151.
Pratto, F., Stallworth, L., Sidanius, J. & Siers, B. (1997). The gender gap in occupational role attainment: A social dominance approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,72, 37-53.
Sidanius, J., Pratto, F. & Bobo, L. (1994). Social Dominance Orientation and the Political Psychology of Gender: A Case Of Invariance? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 998-1011